Cassava Processing in Nigeria

Cassava processing

It is important you acquire a cassava processing machine if you are interested in selling processed cassava.


Tapioca is a starch made from cassava root. It is used in the thickening of biscuits, cakes, rolls, jellies, puddings, porridges, soups and sauces. Likewise, cassava is a raw material for starch balls which is one of the most popular uses of the starch. The little white balls look exactly like pearls or caviar. After they are boiled, their color turns to black. They are normally mixed with powdered sugar and served as dessert. Likewise, cassava balls can be made into various colors and added to drinks or cakes. Cassava flour can replace flour made of cereals. It can be used to bake bread or cakes and is an alternative to conventional bread for people who suffer grain allergies.

Cassava farming business plan: Main calculations

  1. The cost of 1 acre of farmland is approximately N150,000 – N250,000
  2. Preparing 1 hectare of land is approximately – N10,000 – N30,000
  3. 1 liter of herbicide – N1,000 (4.5 liters for 1 ha)
  4. Optimal number of cassava bundles – 60-65 per hectare
  5. One stem costs approximately– N300 – N500
  6. Wage for workers for planting of 1hectare of land – N20,000 (N1,000 a day for one worker, it’s better to hire 4 workers)

You can get 25 tons of cassava roots per one hectare if everything is properly done.

Simple calculations: initial sum, minimum – nearly N350,000 (not including money for workers wages).

Obviously, cassava farming business is rather profitable as it doesn’t require a lot of expenses and cassava is always in demand in this region.


How to generate huge income from cassava peels cake

Cassava crop has over 20 different names from various countries in the world, it is referred to as an emergency/crisis crop because of its expediency in solving the problem of man’s starvation when other crops such as yam, maize, rice, and wheat are insufficient during the period of war, drought or low national incomes. The administration of former General Sanni Abacha is also an example.

During his regime, most Nigerians ate boiled cassava with palm oil for the first time as against the traditional cassava flour and other by-foods related with the crop. Beyond this, it has been found that cassava could lead to the production of several consumables, making it an emergency/ crisis crop indeed.

cassava processing nigeria

Across the regions, Garri is the most food Nigerians make from Cassava followed by Fufu (Akpu). For example, Nigerians in south-west are known for consumption of lafun (Cassava flour). Those living in south-south and south-east regions are well known for Akpu while the northerners eat Abacha, the most.

Countries trailing Nigeria in terms of the commodity production in the world are Brazil, Indonesia, and Thailand. In terms of metric tons, production of the Nigerian farmers is the largest in the world. The position attained by the nation could be traced to the arrival of enhanced varieties by the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture between 1988 and 1992.

The 2016 report of the National Bureau of Statistics shows that Nigeria had the highest production quantity for the three years with 54,023,150 in 2013, 56,328,480 in 2014 and 57,643,271 in 2015. With the failure of harnessing the crop appropriately, it has been estimated that Nigeria is squandering about 14 million metric tons of cassava peels yearly.

Cassava Peels

Obviously, cassava peels can indicate between 5% and 15% of the root. CPs are got from the tubers have been washed with water and peeled mechanically or manually. In most cases, cassava peels contain a lot of cyanogenic glycosides and have a higher protein content than other tuber parts.


The two classes of cassava peels are wet and dry. These are changed or converted into cassava peel cakes after undergoing series of manual and mechanical processes. The two classes are also divided into fine and coarse mash.

The existing information implies that fine mash is proper for poultry, fish, and pigs while coarse mash is focused at feeding cattle, goat, sheep and pigs. The information additionally show that fine mash has higher economic value, while coarse mash is cheaper.

In order to help smallholder farmers and aspiring entrepreneurs in deriving profits from the production of cassava peels cake and increasing the contribution of agriculture to the country’s Gross Domestic Product, national and international researchers have developed technologies for the improvement of the product.

The process of drying and grading of cassava peels through technologies is vital to the generation of sustainable animal feeds and income for women and entrepreneurs in Nigeria and other countries in West Africa sub-region.

According to a group of professionals from the International Livestock Research Institute and International Institute of Tropical Agriculture who enhanced the latest technology for grating, pressing, pulverising and sieving cassava peel cake, ‘if exploited to the fullest, the innovation would yield at least four million tonnes of high-quality animal feed ingredients valued at around USD 600 million per year.’

Okike Iheanacho, one of the scientists who invented the technology, in a recent interview says: “the new innovation quickens the drying process by removing excess water from freshly processed peels; five hundred litres of water can be removed from a ton of fresh peels in just 30 minutes.”


Processing cassava peels cake

The production of cassava peels cake, also known as HQCP (High-quality cassava peel), undergoes four stages. The first stage is the sorting of good peels from the heap of available ones. This becomes necessary because the quality of the raw material used significantly determine the output. At the end of the day, the peels ought to be gathered from fresh cassava and free from contaminants.

According to experts, “when processing is delayed beyond a day, the peels start to ferment and become soggy/slippery and difficult to grate.” The second stage involves grating the peels. Due to the harsh nature of the peels, the grating should be done three times due to the harsh nature of peels. Grating the peels steadily reduces particle size.

Mechanical objects such as hydraulic jack, wooden planks, woven bags and a metal frame are needed for pressing the grated peel in the third stage of the processing. The purpose of the mechanical objects is hold loaded bags of freshly grated peels. Pulverising and sieving cassava peel cake constitute specific activities in the last stage of producing the cake.

To produce dry mash, it’s important the peel cake is re-grated. The purpose is to loosen the peel cake into a free flowing material that can be subjected to sieving to separate the fine mash (lower fiber, high energy content) from coarse mash (higher fiber, lower energy content). Sieving can be done either manually or by using a mechanical device.

Where does realistic income lies?

The animal feed industry is an enormous market in almost all African countries, particularly in the western region where a number of people rear various animals at home to augment their monthly income. Venturing into cassava peels cake would be a key move in addressing the inavailability of quality feed facing the industry. According to recent statistics, Nigeria raked in more than N800 billion in 2016.

The demand for the product will dependably be exponential in light of the fact that existing businesses in the industry are finding it difficult to produce feeds needed by 19.5 million cattle, 72.5 million goats, 41.3 million sheep, 7.1 million pigs and 28,000 camels, a large portion of the animal protein supplements which could be gotten from the peels cake are currently imported.

The data shows that the number of cattle in the country increased by 110% while sheep, pigs, and goats increased by 369%, 726%, and 249% respectively within 30 years.

According to statistics in 2015 from Nigerian Institute of Animal Science, the animal consumption level, hit 5.3 million metric tonnes of animal feeds with the following breakdown: chicken meat, 1.08 million metric tonnes;  egg, 3.1 million metric tonnes; pork, 265,000 metric tonnes; milk, 53,000 metric tonnes; beef, 41,250 metric tonnes; pet foods, 35,000 metric tonnes aquaculture, 647,750 metric tonnes; respectively.

From the analysis, it could be discerned that ruminants, cattle, goats, poultry, rabbits, pigs and poultry require cassava peels cake for their survival, especially digestibility and degradability.



Venturing into Cassava peel cake (HQCP) business requires understanding the low down of its production from agricultural expert and business management perspectives.

These could be gathered from the national and international agencies, and business management organisations, specializing in strategic management of human and material resources. For the mechanical procedure discussed earlier, aspiring entrepreneurs require grater, sifting machine, pulverizer, metal case for jack and hydraulic jack 30 tons.

The aggregate cost of the machine is less than a million naira. The most expensive is the grater, which is sold at N350, 000 with the production capacity of 330kg every hour followed by Pulverizer, which is being sold at N300, 000 and produces 125kg every hour.

The cost of a shifting machine, metal case for jack and hydraulic jack 30 tons are N180, 000, N90, 000 and N15, 000 respectively.

Production coordination, market coordination, and inter-mediation are the three value chain of the business. Prospective entrepreneurs have the opportunity of being integrated once by venturing into all the stages.


How to make soap through cassava peel, plantain peel ash

In 2015, world leaders agreed on a number of goals for the betterment of the humanity.

Responsible production and consumption is one of the goals.

By this, key stakeholders in consumption and production of consumables and non-consumables are relied upon to innovate, applying natural resources in production while consumers should use the innovations meticulously. Soap is one of the basic daily household needs in every society.

Basically, it’s used for bathing, cleaning, and washing. Soap is made from sodium and potassium salts of fatty acids. Since the world is keen on “doing more and better with less” using Goal 12, increasing net welfare gains from economic activities by reducing resource use, degradation and pollution along the whole life cycle while increasing quality of life.

It is important for soap making producers and aspiring entrepreneurs to consider the use of cassava and plantain peels rather than of sodium and potassium ashes.

The two crops (Cassava and Plantain) are among the most cultivated in Nigeria. The National Bureau of Statistics reported in 2016 that cassava crop had the highest production quantity for the three years with 54,023,150 in 2013, 56,328,480 in 2014 and 57,643,271 in 2015.

Food and Agriculture Organisation has likewise implied that is one of the biggest banana and Plantain (Mussa .spp) developing nations in Africa. The country produces 2.74 million tons of banana yearly, mainly for local consumption.

The peels

Cassava and Banana or plantain peels contributes to agricultural waste materials that litter the whole environment across the nation. In the south western part of Nigeria, significant quantities of generated peels are been thrown on dumping sites thereby constituting a source of environmental pollution, according to a recent research. Another research has also found them to be active ingredient and as alternative sources to the much-needed lye in soap making. Lye is sometimes referred to as caustic soda. Lye is ordinarily in form of sodium


hydroxide and potassium hydroxide. Sodium hydroxide is used in making solid soap, while potassium hydroxide is used to make liquid soap. Manufacturers and aspiring entrepreneurs should consider their usage in other to save the country’s foreign exchange.

Preparation of ash

In other go obtain the needed ash from the two crops’ peels, separation of dirt from the peels is necessary. After the separation stage, the peels should be left under the sun for two weeks until it properly dried. The third stage is the burning of the peels separately until properly burnt.

Preparation of ash

In other go obtain the needed ash from the two crops’ peels, separation of dirt from the peels is necessary. After the separation stage, the peels should be left under the sun for two weeks until it properly dried. The third stage is the burning of the peels separately until properly burnt.

The final stage is the gathering of the ashes into a clean container and store. According to the researchers, the potassium hydroxide (KOH) concentrations of plantain peel is very high while that of cassava peel is low. Both contain potassium hydroxide (KOH) in different degrees of alkalinity. The plantain peel is moist alkaline than the cassava peel.

Readiness to buy local products

Using the ashes for soap making would not be a waste of resources based on the quantity of the two crops produced annually and Nigerians readiness to patronize products with local materials. In 2016, NOI Polls revealed that 97 percent of Nigerians expressed their willingness to buy locally made products in order to strengthen the country’s economy.


According to the report soap and detergents are parts of the items of highest priority in an average Nigerian family. A 2014’s estimation has earlier revealed that the national demand for laundry soap is 4.9 million tablets per annum.

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