In recent times, Pig farming has become an extremely popular business and has even become more popular day after day. If you have finally decided to venture into a profit-making business or an investment that brings a quick return, then pig farming is for you.
Pig farming business in Nigeria is of great economic importance as it alleviates poverty, unemployment and lack of nutrition etc. Pig farming also known as piggery is another aspect of farming in Nigeria that is making smart investors and entrepreneurs huge money on daily basis. If you are into this pig farming, you sure wouldn’t lack money again for the rest of your life. The reason is that Pig meat is in high demand in Nigeria and sells very very fast in the market. Breeding pigs will not only bring you money but also fulfill meat demands of your family.
Piggery farming in Nigeria has many advantages which include:
- Compared to goats and cattle, pigs have a very short reproductive period
- A sow (Female Pig) gives birth to approximately 12piglets two times per year, the gestation period is about 115 days.
- Pig reproduce in large numbers and grow very fast and are not particular about food. This will help reduce expenses
- The climate of Nigeria encourages pig farming.
Factors to Consider When Setting Up a Piggery Farm in Nigeria
- Land selection
Land selection depends on how you plan to feed your pigs, a plot of land may just be okay for small-scale selection but if you can acquire a large farmland (from 5 acres and above) then that will be very good so that your pigs can graze in the open and retire to the pen where they’d continue feeding and playing.
The land is your biggest investment in this business. Once you have it, you’re halfway done. Search for an appropriate land in a rural area or a peaceful and dormant place where you can get land at cheaper rates and invest less. It is important to think over what size of land will be suitable for the number of pigs you plan to raise. In rural areas, you can get 1 acre of land at the rate of N200,000 multiplied by the number of acres you want.
You can do your farming in rural areas and transport your goods or products to the town. Some butchers will even come to your farm to buy, saving you the cost of transportation. It is good to raise pigs in the pasture by leaving them occasionally to root around in the fields where they can find plants to eat, and that can only be achieved when you have large enough farmland (Pasture Ground) to cater for this. As they mature, you take care so that they do not wander away.
- Ensure you divide the land into few parts to breed pigs of different ages separately.
- Ensure you consider the fact that your pigs will need fresh and uncontaminated water.
- Research pig markets in your area
Farmers have to identify the market for their pigs before they start producing them. Farmers should desist from the practice of hunting around for a market when their pigs are ready for sale. When the producer has identified a market he must ask himself whether the price being offered for his pigs will be enough to make the project viable. An important point to consider when one is choosing a market is the distance to the market. If the distance to the market is long the project will incur high transport costs and hence will be less viable.
3. Purchase Healthy Piglets
The well-being of the piglets you want to start your farm with is of great importance. When you buy healthy piglets, you are sure of having big and healthy pigs. Ensure you purchase your piglets from a trusted and reliable source and also make sure the piglets you are purchasing has a good history of vaccination. As a beginner, it is important to start with a smaller number of piglets and increase gradually so as to minimize risk.
- Breed Selection
They can be local or hybrid piglets, breeding several breeds of pigs. Several popular breeds in Nigeria are local breeds of white, brown, and black colour, and foreign breeds: Hampshire, Hereford pig, American Yorkshire, Berkshire pig, Landrace, Tamworth pig, Duroc, Mulefoot pig, and others.
Hybrid pigs grow quicker and are much healthier in comparison to other breeds. For the very beginning, it is advisable to buy a few piglets, to understand if you can cope with them, and then gradually increase the amount, so you will have minimal risk.
Ensure you make the right choice by
- Only buying from trusted sources with good vaccination records.
- Ensuring your piglets have a glossy coat
- Ensuring your piglets have a good temperament (Avoid aggressive pigs)
- Ensuring your piglets have a good appetite
- Ensuring your piglets have bright eyes
Building a standard pen/house for your pigs is very essential. It guarantees the well-being of pigs and prevents attacks from predators.
A good spacious pen/house also helps to keep the pigs free from diseases and contamination. It is also important to create or construct a proper drainage system to avoid stagnant water in your pen/house which can attract insects that can be harmful to your pigs.
Good housing helps to control the temperature level during hot and cold weather conditions which can your pig’s lifespan. To avoid your pigs getting overly dirty, you need to build a water pool where they can play, swim (pigs like swimming), and cool themselves which is important to their well-being. Changing the water and refilling the pool as frequently as possible will ensure that they are clean all the time. If you are keeping them outdoors, a shelter should be built for them. You can raise pigs both indoor and outdoor.
If you keep pigs outdoors, just remember that they will need a good place to survive hot and cold weather. If you keep pigs indoors, ensure good ventilation, sanitation and illumination inside. You should also organize a place for pig’s bedding and feeding. The bed should be dry. Some people consider pigs as dirty animals, in fact, pigs love a clean environment. You should create a drainage system of free flow of pigs’ waste. If you want your pigs to be happy, just build a small water pool, where they will be able to play and swim, as well as get rid of dirt and cool themselves in hot weather. Change the water in the pool periodically. To receive pig-farming profits you should build your business taking into account many things.
Pigs are similar to human beings, they eat a wide variety of foods, and anything humans can eat they can eat. Like human being as well, they need balanced diet such as fibre, energy, protein, carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals to thrive. The feed will take the major chunk of your spending on the farm.
Pigs, like all animals, must have constant access to clean fresh drinking water. As well as tipping the trough to make a wallow, pigs will also stand in the water trough and wash their dirty faces in it, so it needs to be checked regularly, cleaned out and refilled. Galvanized troughs are robust and easy to clean, and not too easy for the pigs to tip over. Automatic drinkers are available but aren’t half as much fun for the pigs
Put all these in place and you are as good as having started your business. There is nothing as good as being in business you are sure of profit; Pig farming is one of such business. All you need to do is to feed and take care of them. Do that proper and watch them multiply in three fold.
Types of Pig Feed
Pigs need different types of feeds as they develop because their nutritional needs vary with age and stage of production. There are four types of feeds used in Fermented Bed Technology system. These are: Creep, Weaner, Grower and Finisher feeds.
1. Creep feed: This is introduced to piglets from the third week up to 8 weeks when they are weaned. Creep feed is given to supplement Sow milk It must be high in protein (20-22%) and highly digestible
- Weaner feed: This is fed to pigs after weaning from 2-4 month. It contains 14-20% protein
- Grower feed: This is feed to pigs that are between 4-6 months. It is given to breeding animals (gilts, Sows and Boars). It contains 14-16% protein
- Finisher Meal: It is given to animals after 6 months. It contains 11-13% protein
Just like humans, pigs get sick. The only difference between humans and pigs is that unless you pay close attention to them, you might not easily detect if they are sick.
It is very important to employ the services of a qualified and experienced veterinary doctor so you can easily contact him when you notice any abnormal changes in your pigs and also for the purpose of giving the appropriate vaccination.
Below are diseases and clinical symptoms a pig can encounter
How to achieve Success in Pig Farming
- Breeding: The pigs’ gestation period is about 115 days. Usually, piglets are born two times a year. Each sow can have approximately 15 piglets a time. A sow feeds piglets by breast milk for the first 9 weeks, after this period a sow is ready again for insemination.
- Marketing: The popularity of pork is far beyond Nigeria. You can market pork both on the local and international markets, the demand for this type of meat is rather high. China is the leading international consumer of pork.
- Knowledge: For beginners, Pig farming can be challenging but if you search the internet for articles, buy farming business guides, and seek advice from more experienced farmers, you will definitely become a successful pig farmer. Knowledge is always an added advantage, if you understand how a business works by studying and researching, you will make a lot of profit and become successful in the business.
- Employ Workers: If you plan on setting up a pig farm with hundred pigs or more, it will be extremely difficult to cope with such amount of pigs on your own, so it will be advisable to employ 4-5 persons. If you are starting on a smaller scale, a lesser number of workers will be The workers employed will be responsible for cleaning of the pigs and pens/house, feeding the pigs, making the pigs organized, well behaved and other necessary things
- Consult A Veterinary Doctor: You need the services of a qualified veterinary doctor for regular checkup and vaccination as well as feeding and advice on nutrition.
How profitable is pig farming in Nigeria?
With little capital, you can start a piggery business and still have a profit. Pig farming can bring you a great sum of money, successful pig farmers get a decent sum every day. It’s in high demand, and pigs develop rapidly, pig meat also known as pork is sold immediately. They breed practically like rabbits, and have no demands in food.
The rest is basic calculation. Obviously, you will require money for start-up. The money will be used to purchase land, build housing, purchase piglets, food for the primary period. You can get loans from financial institutions to fund the project. The final year-end quantity of pigs depends on the initial amount of piglets you started with. The more pigs you have, the faster you will be able to pay back your loan.
Despite the huge profitability of Pig farming business, a lot of Nigerians as a result of ignorance on how the business works overlook this great opportunity. Some engage in it as a part-time business not knowing if they engage in it full time they will make a lot of money.
Depending on the weight, a fully grown pig can be sold as high as N40,000. If you are able to rear a hundred piglets to maturity in a 12months (a year), you will be making N4,000,000 from the sales. If you decide to increase the number of pigs you rear to let’s say like 1,000pigs in a year you will be making N30,000,000 on sales. Achieving 100pigs in a year wouldn’t be a big deal if you consider the fact that pigs reproduce very fast.
Calculating your breeding plan is very important, it helps to prevent overcrowding in your pig farm. For example, let’s say a sow will bring you about 20 piglets a year, invoke from this quantity and a planned quantity of pigs. Of course, it will only budget and real amounts will be a bit different.
Pig farming equipment
Pig farming requires special equipment such as special hog pens, water bowls, watering system, pit scrappers, feeder nipples, fogging systems, scales, hog feeding, buckets, heat lamps, dirt blaster wash and other. All these equipment can be found on Alibaba. You can visit their website www.alibaba.com and search for necessary equipment
Obviously, pig farming business is not a very difficult business, all you need to do is create your own business plan, have money and desire, learn from the experience of other farmers who are specialized in pig farming for some years.